FIR and IIR filters find numerous real-world applications in various domains due to their distinct characteristics. Here are some examples:
Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters:
Audio Processing: FIR filters are commonly used in audio equalizers, noise cancellation systems, and audio effects processing to achieve precise frequency response shaping and signal enhancement.
Image Processing: FIR filters play a vital role in image enhancement, edge detection, and image smoothing applications, where they help in noise reduction and improving image quality.
Communication Systems: FIR filters are used in wireless communication systems, such as digital modulation and demodulation processes, to eliminate interference, enhance signal quality, and achieve reliable data transmission.
Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters:
Biomedical Signal Processing: IIR filters are widely utilized in processing biomedical signals, such as electrocardiograms (ECG) and electroencephalograms (EEG), for noise removal, artifact suppression, and feature extraction, enabling accurate diagnostic analysis.
Control Systems: IIR filters are applied in control systems to shape the frequency response of feedback loops, stabilize systems, and improve transient response for achieving desired system performance.
Speech and Audio Compression: IIR filters are employed in speech and audio compression algorithms, such as speech codecs and audio codecs, to achieve efficient data compression while maintaining acceptable audio quality.
These examples highlight how FIR and IIR filters are integral to a wide range of applications, addressing diverse signal processing requirements across industries. The choice between FIR and IIR filters depends on factors such as desired frequency response, computational complexity, stability considerations, and specific application constraints. The main difference is time delay for the digital filter, for fast realtime output, typically IIR filters are used such as low pass or high pass filters due to lower number of coefficients.