Analog Circuits


Analog circuits operate on real world electrical signals, voltage and current. Its primary job is to transform and condition signals. We will focus on fundamental building block of analog devices namely, Op-Amps.



Ideal Characteristics of an Op-Amp

Non Ideal Characteristics of an Op-Amp

Amplifier Topology

Single Ended Amplifier

Differential Amplifier

Instrumentation Amplifier


Power Supply Topology

Practical Design Examples

Practical amplifier has following 



What is the importance of high input impedance and low output impedance?

What causes voltage difference between V+ and V- equals to 0?

It's an effect of negative feedback and infinite open loop gain.

What contributes to temperature drift?

The feedback resistor has temperature coefficients. If these coefficients are not perpectly matched, then there will be additional gain error due to resistor deviation.

Summary & Conclusion

Op-AMP is the predominant choice for analog design due to low cost, robustness, and ease of design. 

Further Reading;

"Op Amps For Everyone",